With the introduction of mechanical vacuum pumps for degassing, methods of efficient gas
cooling and dust separation become necessary to avoid the risk of a combination of a critical offgas
composition along with an ignition point resulting in an explosion. This article reviews how to
undertake a risk assessment and looks at equipment to mitigate the risk.
By Wilhelm Burgmann* & Uwe Zöellig**

* Consultant for Vacuum Metallurgy, (Strasbourg), e-mail wburgmann@burgmann-net.de
** Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum GmbH (Cologne/Germany), e-mail Uwe.Zoellig@oerlikon.com